The fire tore through the two-storey building for the elderly in the village of Litochky, located some 50 kilometres (31 miles) north of Kiev.
“The bodies of 17 people have been found at the site of the fire,” the head of Ukraine’s state emergencies service, Mykola Chechotkin, told reporters.
“The fire broke out at a privately-owned house,” he said, adding the residence did not meet existing regulatory requirements.
More than a dozen body bags were laid out close to the fence of a fire-gutted white brick building before they were loaded onto a truck, an AFP photographer reported from the scene.
National television said police had cordoned off the area.
Citing preliminary information, emergency service said that 35 people were at the home when the fire broke out in the early hours of Sunday.
Eighteen people have been rescued and five of them have been hospitalised, said the service, adding the fire, tackled by more than 150 people, had been extinguished by Sunday morning.
A privately-held television channel said the locals had waited some 40 minutes for the firefighters to arrive and had tried unsuccessfully to rescue the people themselves.
One witness, Vasyl, said a residence employee had rescued one person and returned to help get more people out when a wooden structure crashed down upon her.