Vince has been overlooked after failing to pass fifty in seven tests this season, being guilty of a series of soft dismissals.
Mark Wood, who returns to the squad for the first time since undergoing ankle surgery in November, takes the place of injured bowler Steven Finn.
“Mark has had a couple of operations and with his hard work and advice from our medical team he’s now able to take part in this series,” national selector James Whitaker told the ECB website.
Ben Stokes has recovered from a calf injury picked up in the test series against Pakistan and makes the cut, joining captain Eoin Morgan and Jos Buttler who have overcome finger and thumb injuries respectively to return to the side.
Joe Root and Chris Woakes, who were both impressive during the test series, have been included, while Hampshire all-rounder Liam Dawson is the only uncapped player to have been named.
The five-match series starts in Southampton on Aug. 24, before matches at Lord’s, Trent Bridge, Headlingly and Cardiff.