Misbah-ul-Haq, who in the course of his innings became the oldest Test centurion in 82 years, was 110 not after Rahat Ali was bowled by Chris Woakes off what became the last ball of the day.
Warwickshire all-rounder Woakes led England’s attack with four for 45.
Pakistan’s openers got through the new ball ball before first-change Woakes removed them both with a burst of two wickets for five runs in 16 balls.
Shan Masood was caught behind by Jonny Bairstow. Woakes and Bairstow combined again to have Mohammad Hafeez (40) caught off a skyer.
Pakistan were 76 for two shortly after lunch when Azhar Ali was literally knocked off his feet by a yorker from Jake Ball, given a Test debut after the selectors decided against risking England’s all-time leading wicket-taker James Anderson following a shoulder injury.
Ali reviewed and Nottinghamshire quick Ball had a nervous wait before a tight ‘umpire’s call’ verdict gave him a first Test wicket.
Younis Khan made an elegant 33 before he carelessly chipped Stuart Broad to Ali at square leg. But Shafiq offered excellent support with a 130-ball innings featuring 12 fours.
He was out shortly before the close when, trying to withdraw the bat against Woakes with the new ball, he was caught behind.
Woakes then made it two for none in 11 balls when he removed Ali to round off an intriguing first day.
Scoreboard at stumps on the first day of the first Test between England and Pakistan at Lord’s on Thursday:
Pakistan 1st Innings
Mohammad Hafeez c Bairstow b Woakes 40
Shan Masood c Bairstow b Woakes 7
Azhar Ali lbw b Ball 7
Younis Khan c Ali b Broad 33
Misbah-ul-Haq not out 110
Asad Shafiq c Bairstow b Woakes 73
Rahat Ali b Woakes 0
Extras (lb9, w2, nb1) 12
Total (6 wkts, 87 overs, 393 mins) 282
To bat: Sarfraz Ahmed, Wahab Riaz, Mohammad Amir, Yasir Shah
Fall of wickets: 1-38 (Masood), 2-51 (Hafeez), 3-77 (Azhar), 4-134 (Younis), 5-282 (Shafiq), 6-282 (Rahat)
Broad 21-9-44-1 (1w); Ball 19-5-51-1 (1w); Woakes 18-6-45-4; Finn 21-2-86-0; Ali 7-0-46-0 (1nb); Vince 1-0-1-0
England: Alastair Cook (capt), Alex Hales, Joe Root, James Vince, Gary Ballance, Jonny Bairstow (wkt), Moeen Ali, Chris Woakes, Stuart Broad, Steven Finn, Jake Ball
Umpires: Kumar Dharmasena (SRI), Joel Wilson (WIS)
TV umpire: Rod Tucker (AUS)
Match referee: Richie Richardson (WIS)