Root finished the second day of the County Championship fixture unbeaten on 190, while Bairstow scored 198 as the pair put on a fourth-wicket partnership of 372 to help First Division champions Yorkshire reach 486 for five at Headingley.
Having joined forces at 45 for three early in the day’s play, it took only 67 overs of blistering stroke-play from Root and Bairstow to etch their names into the Yorkshire record books.
Yorkshire’s highest stand against Surrey, George Hirst and Ted Wainwright’s 340 at The Oval in 1899, was the first milestone surpassed before they overtook Darren Lehmann and Michael Lumb’s 358, the all-time club best for the fourth wicket just 10 years ago.
Eventually all but four of Yorkshire’s top partnerships under any category were all surpassed in a dazzling display that must be heartening for England when they return to Headingley to face Sri Lanka next Thursday.
Elsewhere in the Championship, Brett D’Oliveira made another piece of history for his famous family as Worcestershire took control against Glamorgan in the Second Division.
D’Oliveira hit 202 not out in Worcestershire’s total of 456 for six declared as he emulated his father Damien and grandfather Basil.
The D’Oliveira trio are now the first grandfather, father and son to score first-class double centuries.
The 24-year-old’s impressive innings came just days after he recorded his maiden Championship ton.