Sharapova was seeking to have her ban, which was imposed on her by the International Tennis Federation (ITF) in June, wiped out or reduced and a decision was initially expected to be announced by July 18.
The postponement of the ruling came as Sharapova and the ITF needed more time to “complete and respond to their respective evidentiary submissions”, the CAS said in a statement.
“A decision is expected to be issued by 19 September 2016,” it added.
The 29-year-old former world number one was named in Russia’s official entry list for the Olympics tennis tournament.
Sharapova was banned last month following a positive test for the banned drug meldonium during January’s Australian Open.