The islanders lost pace bowler Dhammika Prasad to a shoulder injury even before the first test at Leeds, which England wrapped up inside three days.
Even in that innings and 88-run defeat, the 24-year-old Chameera managed to impress by dismissing top scorer Jonny Bairstow, Moeen Ali and Stuart Broad in England’s first innings.
“Chameera … underwent an MRI/CT Scan this morning, which has indicated a stress fracture to his lower back, and medical recommendation is treatment and rest for as much as four months,” Sri Lanka Cricket said in a statement.
The team would name a replacement soon, it added.
Prasad, who has since been replaced by stumper-batsman Kusal Perera, had been undergoing treatment, the board added.
The second match of the three-test series begins at Chester-le-Street on Friday.