Starc dismissed Dhananjaya de Silva during the first match in the ODI series against Sri Lanka to reach the milestone.
The left-armer earlier bowled opener Kusal Perera with the fourth ball of the match, after Australia elected to bowl first at Colombo’s R Premadasa Stadium.
Starc also overtook former Australian fast bowler Brett Lee, who reached the mark in 55 ODIs.
The 26-year-old paceman from New South Wales, who made his debut against India in 2010, claimed 24 wickets in the just-ended Test series, which saw Australia whitewashed by the home side.
Starc has taken a total of 115 wickets in 28 Test matches.