It was not immediately clear what kind of aircraft was shot down. Turkey’s NTV news channel said it came down in Syrian territory.
A Turkish military official confirmed that two F-16 fighters flying out of the Incirlik base in southern Turkey had opened fire, but was unable to give any details about the target.
NATO member Turkey has a 900-km (560-mile) border with Syria and has been outspoken in its hostility to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.
Assad has said Turkish support was a key factor in helping militant Islamist insurgents seize the northwestern Syrian city of Idlib earlier this year.
Turkey denies that allegation and any suggestion it has delivered arms to Islamist militants fighting to overthrow Assad.