The campaign is also aimed at collecting funds for victims of Syria’s civil war.
Islamic Relief hopes the posters, which bear the words “Subhan Allah”, meaning “Glory be to God” in Arabic, will portray Islam and international aid in a positive light.
The new campaign will appear on buses from 23 May on 640 buses around the country.
Buses will carry the advertisements in London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leicester and Bradford.
These cities have large Muslim populations and the charity hopes it will encourage people to donate generously ahead of the start of Ramadan on 7 June.
An estimated three million Muslims are believed to live in London – around 50 per cent of British Muslim population.
The charity hopes the campaign will help young Muslims channel anger about the war in Syria and discrimination at home into humanitarian work, thereby preventing them from becoming involved with extremist groups.
Imran Madden, the UK director of Islamic Relief, said: “In a sense this could be called a climate change campaign because we want to change the negative climate around international aid and around the Muslim community in this country.
“International aid has helped halve the number of people living in extreme poverty in the past 15 years, and British Muslims are an incredibly generous community who give over £100 million to international aid charities in Ramadan.”