Australia was first inhabited perhaps 40,000 years ago by aboriginal peoples. During the Age of Exploration, the land was discovered and mapped by many Europeans including the Spanish, Dutch and English. However, Australia wasn’t really explored until 1770 when Captain James Cook explored the east coast and claimed it for Great Britain. He named it New South Wales. The first colony was established at Sydney by Captain Arthur Phillip on January 26, 1788. It was initially considered a penal colony.
The climate of Australia is significantly influenced by ocean currents, including the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low-pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia. These factors cause rainfall to vary markedly from year to year.
A wealthy country, It has a market economy, a high GDP per capita, and a relatively low rate of poverty. In terms of average wealth, Australia ranked second in the world after Switzerland from 2013 until 2018. Australia’s poverty rate increased from 10.2% to 11.8%, from 2000/01 to 2013. It was identified by the Credit Suisse Research Institute as the nation with the highest median wealth in the world and the second-highest average wealth per adult in 2013.
The ratio of international to local students in tertiary education in Australia is the highest in the OECD countries. In addition, 30.9 percent of Australia’s population has attained a higher education qualification, which is among the highest percentages in the world.