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IOK

Indian occupied Kashmir (IOK) know as, Jammu and Kashmir is a region administered by India as a state from 1952, constituting the southern and southeastern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India, Pakistan and China since the mid-20th century. The underlying region of this state were parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, whose western districts, now known as Azad Kashmir, and northern territories, now known as Gilgit-Baltistan, are administered by Pakistan. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962.

After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, the princely state of IOK was divided between India (who controlled the regions of Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh) and Pakistan (who controlled Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir). The Indian-administered territories became the state of IOK in 1952. In 1957, the new state approved its own constitution.

In August 2019, both houses of the Parliament of India passed resolutions to amend Article 370 and extend the Constitution of India in its entirety to the state, which was implemented as a constitutional order by the President of India. At the same time, the parliament also passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which would dismiss the state of Jammu and Kashmir and bifurcate it into union territories: the eponymous union territory of IOK, and that of Ladakh.