Kulbhushan Jadhav was born in Sangli, Maharashtra, on 16 April 1970 to Sudhir and Avanti Jadhav. His father is a retired Mumbai Police officer. Jadhav is married and has two children. His family resides in Powai, Mumbai. According to reports in the Pakistani media, Kulbhushan Jadhav joined the Indian National Defence Academy in 1987 and was commissioned in the engineering branch of the Indian Navy in 1991.
on 3 March 2016, Jadhav was arrested inside Balochistan in Mashkel near the border region of Chaman. He was arrested during a counterintelligence raid conducted by security forces. India denied the claim and said he was abducted from Iran.